Preparation

For all ONTAP backends, Trident requires at least one aggregate assigned to the SVM.

Remember that you can also run more than one driver, and create storage classes that point to one or the other. For example, you could configure a Gold class that uses the ontap-nas driver and a Bronze class that uses the ontap-nas-economy one.

All of your Kubernetes worker nodes must have the appropriate NFS tools installed. See the worker configuration guide for more details.

Authentication

Trident offers two modes of authenticating an ONTAP backend.

  • Credential-based: The username and password to an ONTAP user with the required permissions. It is recommended to use a pre-defined security login role, such as admin or vsadmin to ensure maximum compatibility with ONTAP versions.
  • Certificate-based: Trident can also communicate with an ONTAP cluster using a certificate installed on the backend. Here, the backend definition must contain Base64-encoded values of the client certificate, key, and the trusted CA certificate if used (recommended).

Users can also choose to update existing backends, opting to move from credential-based to certificate-based, and vice-versa. If both credentials and certificates are provided, Trident will default to using certificates while issuing a warning to remove the credentials from the backend definition.

Credential-based Authentication

Trident requires the credentials to an SVM-scoped/Cluster-scoped admin to communicate with the ONTAP backend. It is recommended to make use of standard, pre-defined roles such as admin or vsadmin. This ensures forward compatibility with future ONTAP releases that may expose feature APIs to be used by future Trident releases. A custom security login role can be created and used with Trident, but is not recommended.

A sample backend definition will look like this:

{
  "version": 1,
  "backendName": "ExampleBackend",
  "storageDriverName": "ontap-nas",
  "managementLIF": "10.0.0.1",
  "dataLIF": "10.0.0.2",
  "svm": "svm_nfs",
  "username": "vsadmin",
  "password": "secret",
}

Keep in mind that the backend definition is the only place the credentials are stored in plaintext. Once the backend is created, usernames/passwords are encoded with Base64 and stored as Kubernetes secrets. The creation/updation of a backend is the only step that requires knowledge of the credentials. As such, it is an admin-only operation, to be performed by the Kubernetes/Storage administrator.

Certificated-based Authentication

Trident 21.01 introduces a new feature: authenticating ONTAP backends using certificates. New and existing backends can use a certificate and communicate with the ONTAP backend. Three parameters are required in the backend definition.

  • clientCertificate: Base64-encoded value of client certificate.
  • clientPrivateKey: Base64-encoded value of associated private key.
  • trustedCACertificate: Base64-encoded value of trusted CA certificate. If using a trusted CA, this parameter must be provided. This can be ignored if no trusted CA is used.

A typical workflow involves the following steps:

  1. A client certificate and key are generated. When generating, CN (Common Name) is set to the ONTAP user to authenticate as.
#Generate certificate used to authenticate the client
openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 1095 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout k8senv.key -out k8senv.pem -subj "/C=US/ST=NC/L=RTP/O=NetApp/CN=admin"
  1. Add trusted CA certificate to the ONTAP cluster. This may be already handled by the storage administrator. Ignore if no trusted CA is used.
#Install trusted CA cert in ONTAP cluster.
security certificate install -type server -cert-name <trusted-ca-cert-name> -vserver <vserver-name>
ssl modify -vserver <vserver-name> -server-enabled true -client-enabled true -common-name <common-name> -serial <SN-from-trusted-CA-cert> -ca <cert-authority>
  1. Install the client certificate and key (from step 1) on the ONTAP cluster.
#Install certificate generated from step 1 on ONTAP cluster
security certificate install -type client-ca -cert-name <certificate-name> -vserver <vserver-name>
security ssl modify -vserver <vserver-name> -client-enabled true
  1. Confirm the ONTAP security login role supports cert authentication method.

    #Add cert authentication method to ONTAP security login role
    security login create -user-or-group-name admin -application ontapi -authentication-method cert
    security login create -user-or-group-name admin -application http -authentication-method cert
    
  2. Test authentication using certificate generated.

    #Test access to ONTAP cluster using certificate. Replace <ONTAP Management LIF> and <vserver name> with Management LIF IP and SVM name.
    curl -X POST -Lk https://<ONTAP-Management-LIF>/servlets/netapp.servlets.admin.XMLrequest_filer --key k8senv.key --cert ~/k8senv.pem -d '<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><netapp xmlns="http://www.netapp.com/filer/admin" version="1.21" vfiler="<vserver-name>"><vserver-get></vserver-get></netapp>'
    
  3. Encode certificate, key and trusted CA certificate with Base64.

    #Encode with Base64 and write each key to a file.
    base64 -w 0 k8senv.pem >> cert_base64
    base64 -w 0 k8senv.key >> key_base64
    base64 -w 0 trustedca.pem >> trustedca_base64
    
  4. Create backend using the values obtained from step 6.

    #Trident backend using cert-based auth
    $ cat cert-backend.json
    {
    "version": 1,
    "storageDriverName": "ontap-nas",
    "backendName": "NasBackend",
    "managementLIF": "1.2.3.4",
    "dataLIF": "1.2.3.8",
    "svm": "vserver_test",
    "clientCertificate": "Faaaakkkkeeee...Vaaalllluuuueeee",
    "clientPrivateKey": "LS0tFaKE...0VaLuES0tLS0K",
    "trustedCACertificate": "QNFinfO...SiqOyN",
    "storagePrefix": "myPrefix_"
    }
    
    #Create backend
    $ tridentctl create backend -f cert-backend.json -n trident
    +------------+----------------+--------------------------------------+--------+---------+
    |    NAME    | STORAGE DRIVER |                 UUID                 | STATE  | VOLUMES |
    +------------+----------------+--------------------------------------+--------+---------+
    | NasBackend | ontap-nas      | 98e19b74-aec7-4a3d-8dcf-128e5033b214 | online |       0 |
    +------------+----------------+--------------------------------------+--------+---------+
    

Updating Authentication Methods/Rotating Credentials

Users can update an existing backend to make use of a different authentication method or to rotate their credentials. This works both ways: backends that make use of username/password can be updated to use certificates; backends that utilize certificates can be updated to username/password based. To do this, an updated backend.json file containing the required parameters must be used to execute tridentctl backend update.

Note

When rotating passwords, the storage administrator must first update the password for the user on ONTAP. This is followed by a backend update. When rotating certificates, multiple certificates can be added to the user. The backend is then updated to use the new certificate, following which the old certificate can be deleted from the ONTAP cluster.

#Update backend.json to include chosen auth method
$ cat cert-backend-updated.json
{
"version": 1,
"storageDriverName": "ontap-nas",
"backendName": "NasBackend",
"managementLIF": "1.2.3.4",
"dataLIF": "1.2.3.8",
"svm": "vserver_test",
"username": "vsadmin",
"password": "secret",
"storagePrefix": "myPrefix_"
}

#Update backend with tridentctl
$ tridentctl update backend NasBackend -f cert-backend-updated.json -n trident
+------------+----------------+--------------------------------------+--------+---------+
|    NAME    | STORAGE DRIVER |                 UUID                 | STATE  | VOLUMES |
+------------+----------------+--------------------------------------+--------+---------+
| NasBackend | ontap-nas      | 98e19b74-aec7-4a3d-8dcf-128e5033b214 | online |       9 |
+------------+----------------+--------------------------------------+--------+---------+

Updating a backend does not disrupt access to volumes that have already been created, nor impact volume connections made after. A successful backend update indicates that Trident can communicate with the ONTAP backend and handle future volume operations.

Export-policy Management

Trident uses NFS export policies to control access to the volumes that it provisions.

Trident provides two options when working with export policies:

  1. Trident can dynamically manage the export policy itself; in this mode of operation, the storage admin specifies a list of CIDR blocks that represent admissible IP addresses. Trident adds node IPs that fall in these ranges to the export policy automatically. Alternatively, when no CIDRs are specified, any global-scoped unicast IP found on the nodes will be added to the export policy.
  2. Storage admins can create an export policy and add rules manually. Trident uses the default export policy unless a different export policy name is specified in the configuration.

With (1), Trident automates the management of export policies, creating an export policy and taking care of additions and deletions of rules to the export policy based on the worker nodes it runs on. As and when nodes are removed or added to the Kubernetes cluster, Trident can be set up to permit access to the nodes, thus providing a more robust way of managing access to the PVs it creates. Trident will create one export policy per backend. This feature requires CSI Trident. To learn more about this feature, continue to Dynamic Export Policy Management.

With (2), Trident does not create or otherwise manage export policies themselves. The export policy must exist before the storage backend is added to Trident, and it needs to be configured to allow access to every worker node in the Kubernetes cluster. If the export policy is locked down to specific hosts, it will need to be updated when new nodes are added to the cluster and that access should be removed when nodes are removed as well.